Randell Mills, founder of Black Light Power, claims a fractional quantum state of hydrogen he coins the “hydrino” which is formed inside skeletal catalyst Rayney nickel and has up to 137 fractional quantum states. The hydrino is claimed to produce much more heat energy than chemistry can explain inside the pores / cavities of the catalyst. The output energy was validated twice by Rowan University, most recently on August 12 th using off the shelf materials instead of materials prepared by Black Light Power. This establishes an easier path to replication and additional replications should be expected to follow. The theory however is still fiercely disputed and mainstream scientists continue to propose alternate solutions such as a Casimir-Lamb shift proposed by Haisch -Moddel from the perspective of Casimir cavities.
In 2005 a math paper by Jan Naudts contends that fractional quantum state argument against hydrino state overlooks relativistic solutions. This bolsters claim by Randell Mills that disassociated hydrogen diffused into skeletal catalyst can release excess heat. I will attempt to make the case that similar to the “Twin Paradox” in Physics 101. Hydrogen outside the cavity has equivalent motion relative to the shielded hydrogen inside the cavity. This results in hydrogen exiting the cavity older than hydrogen which did not diffuse through the cavity. Hydrogen inside the cavity performs many more reactions through time dilation and Lorentz contraction then could be performed outside the cavity for the time period the hydrogen was inside.
In 2007 Ronald Bourgoin published a paper that showed the general wave equation predicts exactly the 137 inverse principal quantum levels claimed by Mills. Bourgoins’s equations use a 4D coordinate system suggesting the orbital could appear to collapse spatially below the Bohr radius because the “displacement” to the nucleus is partially converted to the time axis. The fractional quantum radius only exists from our 3D perspective outside the cavity observing the hydrino inside. The Bourgoin solutions suggest Mills hydrino only exists relative to an observer outside the Casimir cavity. Inside the cavity hydrogen atoms are unaware the t coordinate of their (X, Y, Z, t) position has changed in the same way that the earth bound twin is unaware of his multiple second per second existence relative to the twin approaching an event horizon (C through equivalence). Only when the still young twin returns to earth or the now “old” hydrogen exits the cavity is the difference apparent.
The theory that Casimir cavities represent an abrupt equivalence boundary is not new, In 2002 a paper “Vacuum fluctuation force on a rigid Casimir cavity in a gravitational field” by Italian researchers Enrico Calloni, Luciano Di Fiore, Giampiero Esposito, Leopoldo Milano, Luigi Rosa discusses the possibility of verifying the equivalence principle for the zero-point energy of quantum electrodynamics, by evaluating the force, produced by vacuum fluctuations, acting on a rigid Casimir cavity in a weak gravitational field. The resulting force has opposite direction with respect to the gravitational acceleration, Their proposal indicates equivalent acceleration outside the cavity relative to inside the cavity. Although the force levels they mention , 10^-17N, seems inconsequential it results in a constant acceleration just like an ion drive which can eventually produce huge velocities, It also allows for the force to increase exponentially as fractional quantum states contract the atom to down to permeate increasingly smaller geometry, In fact most current investigations of hydrino, LENR and Casimir – Lamb shift effects all confirm the need for monatomic hydrogen.
The differential between inside and outside the cavity creates the relativistic perception of frequency up conversion. From the perspective of the Beck – Mackey work, the ratio of fast to slow virtual photons appears to increase and has fewer gravitationally active virtual photons. One could also simply consider this duty factor -if time inside the cavity executes at multiple seconds per second from our perspective then the earths gravity at 9.8m/s^2 is divided down by the same factor.
A paper by Thomas Prevenslik explaining Casimir effect instead through QED “up-conversion” does not require vacuum fluctuations, this method simply requires nature to up convert IR >> VUV per conservation of energy and plates are pulled together through induced electrostatic force. My relativistic theory combines his frequency “up conversion” with the rigid cavity properties proposed by the Italian research team in the preceding paragraph to allow equivalent acceleration between the outside and inside of the cavity. This means ALL Frequencies inside the cavity APPEAR up converted through time dilation. This includes the 2Thz virtual photons Beck and Mackey proposes to be more gravitationally active. The entire spectrum inside the “shielded” cavity “ages” at multiple seconds per second relative to the equivalent acceleration outside the cavity. I call this “relative” up conversion because the observer inside the cavity sees outside the cavity in the same manner we observe an event horizon.
Christian Beck and Michael Mackey publish papers, “Measurability of vacuum fluctuations and dark energy” and “Electromagnetic dark energy” revealing virtual photons with frequency less than 2 THz are more gravitationally active than those above. Beck’s claim is presently only theoretical awaiting experimental evidence. My proposal that the ratio of fast to slow virtual photons decreases down a gravity well hinges heavily on the results of Beck’s experiment proving slower virtual photons are more gravitationally active. This would establish my premise that the ratio of fast to slow virtual photons increases in a Casimir cavity as reflected by “up conversion” creating a small “gravity hill”
I propose the ratio of virtual photons ( >2 THz) / ( <2 THz) decreases approaching an event horizon to reflect Beck’s theory that slower virtual photons are more gravitationally active. The “up-conversion” in a Casimir cavity if relativistic would up convert all frequencies including virtual photons from our perspective outside the cavity, but the increased ratio of fast to slow virtual photons is now in the opposite direction creating a gravity “Hill” or lack of gravitationally active virtual photons as opposed to a gravity “Well”. This effect would be Omni directional in normal matter and quickly average out but in Casimir plates is directional and sums to create very local differentials where the shielded areas can be concentrated between two plates. These gravitational hills then see the normal space outside the cavity as down hill from their perspective just as we see an event horizon. The stage is now set for equivalence without the astronomical distances or crushing gravity of an event horizon. Although flat space doesn’t have the resistance to time flow of an event horizon it does still have a certain default fraction thereof, the shielded hydrogen inside the cavity however only experiences a small fraction of this default value based on Casimir geometry resulting in equivalent acceleration between hydrogen inside the cavity vs. outside. This has the unlikely consequence of time dilation and Lorentz contraction occurring to hydrogen inside the cavity relative to outside the cavity. The correct choice of material and geometry (Rayney nickel) can then act as a membrane to preferentially scale only the monatomic gas (Mills and Moddel) into what appears from our perspective to be increasingly smaller geometry where molecular gas can not follow, Then if these fractional atoms form a fractional molecule they become trapped just like the molecular gas left behind at the entrance when the atoms started diffusing into the increasingly smaller geometry of the cavity walls. The difference is that these fractional molecules that don’t even perceive themselves as fractional are trapped inside the membrane and when diffused by gas law will have their molecular bond broken by the confinement restoring monatomic energy levels and allowing the atoms to change to the new fractional value before finding another fractional atom to recombine into a different fractional molecule and give off the freely acquired energy as a photon. The cycle then cascades until the gas escapes or the heat destroys the cavity.
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As velocity approaches C on spatial axis( x=volume), Time axis is suppressed (event horizon),
As velocity approaches C on time axis (y= time), Volume axis is suppressed (Casimir cavity).