The June 2009 LENR seminar at University of Missouri presenters kept an open mind towards the method employed to produce anomalous heat. The numerous reports of excess heat manifestations across bubble fusion, LENR and Casimir cavities are well documented and often replicated but the physics remains controversial. I propose that all these manifestations are based on Casimir cavities. The Rayney nickel used by Black Light Power has pore sizes forming cavities of Casimir geometry ( 2 nm as listed in Wikipedia). The recipe for Rayney Nickel leaches Al voids out of the parent Ni – Al alloy which results in a skeleton structure that could not form in a single step because conductive structures fabricated on this scale will aggregate due to the Casimir effect we know as stiction. This also suggests that Casimir force may be the engine behind all catalytic action.
Casimir force requires paralell conductive plates which can take the form of crevices in skeletal catalysts, the miniscus of bubbles in a conductive electrolyte or the geometry of a conductive lattice structures such as Nickel. To produce heat instead of catalytic action however is a rare anomally recorded most often in combination with rigid catalysts and Pd membranes. Palladium is both a catalyst and due to the size of its’ lattice geometry is also a gas membrane allowing monatomic hydrogen to be forced through the latice while remaining sealed to larger gases. This is why low temperature manifestations of excess heat like SPAWAR and Arrata-Zhang most often inclue Pd while high temperature occurences like Black Lights’ Rayney Nickel require heat and pressure to disassocite the gas.
The solution to the controversey is neither nuclear or chemical. Most of the anomalous heat phenomena have a common basis in Casimir geometry. skeletal catalysts like Rayney nickel have cavities that are the very definition of Casimir cavities but even the minisci of bubbles in sonoluminescence can form Casimir geometry . Jan Naudts proposed the sub ground state orbital of the hydrino could only exist from a relativistic perspective. His proposal would mean Lorentz contraction can occur in the opposite direction (we outside the cavity are racing away in a stronger equivalent acceleration -gravity field) accumulating a time dialation where the gas diffused in a Casimir cavity appears to age rapidly while the orbital diameter quite correctly calculates smaller because we have 2 inertial frames where the difference in radial velocity is accumulating. This might also explain catalytic action but to produce the anomalous heat I propose that a Rigid catalyst can act like a membrane which trumps normal catalytic action by tearing apart fast moving larger matter such as molecules or compounds. This allows monotomic gas to diffuse deeper into the narrowing cavity where Casimir force increases and further “decelerating” the gravitational field relative to the ambient field outside the cavity. This makes the inertial field outside the cavity equivalent to a spaceship holding position in a deep gravity well while inside the cavity is equivalent to an observer holding position higher in the same well. This is in contrast to what QED calls “up conversion” of vacuum fluctuations in a Casimir cavity. The longer wavelength vacuum flux are not actually being replaced with smaller flux as held by present theory but are actually displaced on the time axis to appear shorter from our perspective. the atomic matter that is painted on the canvas of this zone depleted of long flux inside a casimir cavity are really displaced on the time axis and only appear to contract smaller on the spatial axis due to Lorentz contraction. This Lorentzian contraction varies with relative spacing between the sides of the cavity as the gas diffuses according to gas law. These normally chaotic vacuum fluctuations become “organized” by the physical containment of a rigid cavity approaching a 2D limit and a variable temporal co-ordinate to create strong boundary conditions against the bonding orbitals of diatomic molecules and compounds. This makes the rigid cavity a rectifier of high speed diatomic matter – It may “slow” the atoms while restoring them to monatomic energy but the abrupt boundary between the external ambient g field and decelerated fields inside the cavity means the differential velocity will immediately start to re-accumulate.
One very repeatable experiment presented by SPAWARS is shown below where the Pd is in solution and plated out onto the electrode while Deuterium is being evolved theough electrolysis. The incubation time for anomalous heat detection for this method is minutes instead of weeks associated with many of the other experiments. I have suggested using a Pd plated porous tube instead of plating out the Pd from the electrolyte. The H2 or D2 could be fed into the tube which can still be used as the hydrogen evolving electrode in their electrolsis and allow them to concentrate on providing Casimir cavities as iintimately to the tube surface as possible. H2 or D2 is always natures’ prefered state so the percentage of monatomic gas translating to hydrino state will be small.