My interpretation of 4D Space-time is from an unphysical perspective on the time axis looking down on the zero intersect where time meets the 3D spatial axis for an instant we refer to as the “present”. We already acknowledge time displacement is equivalent to distance in the three dimensional plane(C/d) but I am proposing that at the atomic level the nuclei and orbitals are displaced on the time axis itself 90 degrees from the spatial plane. I am suggesting that all matter has an unphysical 4th dimension which can be modeled as the relative motion of the fabric of space time “unrolling” through our 3D plane. We can not easily measure this relative motion in the macro world due to our low relative velocity to C but in the atomic world orbitals are kept at luminal speeds by the streaming of this fabric through space (Puthoff model). I propose that the orbitals are tethered to the proton but are blown behind the heavier nucleus on the time axis by a constant stream of virtual particles that energize the electrons orbital motion. Although electrons may have different spatial coordinates their time coordinates are similar trailing behind their nuclei closer to the “past” while nuclei all forge ahead ,sinking into the “future” and dragging their electrons with them.

In the macro world we can only measure accumulated time dilation measured between different inertial frames such as the twin paradox. Bohr radius and speed of light always appear constant within our inertial frame. At an atomic level however, a temporal perspective would show orbitals forming halos of different radii while the vortii extending down to the nucleii gets deeper or more shallow depending on acceleration. This is much like the coffee analogy of Ron Mallet, the faster Ron stirs his coffee the more the radius of the frothy center contracts but the vortex also extends further down into the coffee a proportional amount. Ron suggests we can only see the coffee surface in our 3D world. I am suggesting the radius of the frothy center represents the Bohr radius and always appears unchanged to us just like C appears constant from within any inertial frame. The swirling vortex going down into the coffee gets longer as the radius on the surface contracts to keep the volume constant. I propose time perception is based on this “constant volume” making it impossible for observers in different inertial frame to be aware of differences in this relative motion between time and space. The “Present” time frame has a narrow unphysical temporal dimension that varies with acceleration. Our time perception is scaled by this relative motion of time through space. From a time perspective space would appear like a narrow ribbon that flattens the material universe down to a two dimensionsl plane where our entire material universe is filleted onto a flat array. I imagine these virtual particles are traveling through the present from the time axis keeping the orbital “open” as they squeeze through our spatial dimension.

Below I extend Puthoffs’ model to include this unphysical temporal displacement between the nuclei and the orbital. Changes in

relative motion between space and time can be accomplished through linear or radial acceleration of matter or by parking that matter in a gravity well where other concentrated matter has already curved space changing the relative motion of any matter in the well. At the atomic level I am suggesting catalytic action is actually a special case of this same action in reverse, the nuclei in the lattice structure concentrate gravitational force but through geometry and quantum effects isolte and deplete these virtual particles in a cavity between 2 closely spaced lattice “plates” called Casimir effect. Diffusing gas atoms into these cavities causes different rates of acceleration due to curved space proportional to the local geometry changing Casimir force. The gas atoms become time dilated as their radial acceleration is varied throughout the cavity. One example is “relativistic hydrogen” as coined by Jan Naudts to explain the odd frequency spectrum of hydrogen gas reported in LENR, Sonoluminescence and numerous other experiments with monatomic hydrogen and catalysts.

Jan Naudts published a paper (5 August 2005) [5] “On the hydrino state of the relativistic hydrogen atom” which proposed a relativistic solution for the controversial fractional quantum state hydrogen. Although Naudts theory was for a single atom and had only 1 stable state describing a nuclear reaction it laid the foundation for a relativistic interpertation. In June of 2007,Ronald Bourgoin, once a graduate student of Robert Carroll’s, published a paper that showed the general wave equation predicts exactly 137 steps misidentified by hydrino theory as fractional quantum states.[4] “Inverse Quantum States of Hydrogen“. His equations could also be reversed to suggest 137 super states where the orbital wavelength appears slower supporting the accepted time dilation approaching an event horizon.

Note that time dilation approaching an event horizon does not suggest any change in size – it only appears smaller due to temporal perspective and the same should be applied to relativistic hydrogen inside a Casimir cavity. Bourgoin failed to emphasize this relativistic nature of his solutions and his solution was embraced as support for fractional ground state instead of a relativistic solution for wavelengths which can’t be physically measured between different inertial frames, These fractional and super states represent acceleration steps that displace the atom on the time axis making them appear smaller in either direction but faster in a Casimir cavity and slower approaching an event horizon.

no acceleration =[X,Y,Z,n]

normal acceleration =[ X,Y,Z, n(9.8m/s^2 / t )]

C acceleration =[X,Y,Z,n(C/t)]

Visible contraction due to temporal displacement is normally disregarded as a negligile in our everyday enviroment due to our macro existence at the low end of the velocity curve relative to the speed of light, relativistic events just aren’t visible at our scale except at huge gravitational values or acceleration that prohibit our personal experience. At the nano scale however there is an opposite gravitational effect that allows the isotropy to be broken in a tiny geometrical construct of conductive plates called a Casimir cavity. Since 2002 Italian researchers DiFiore et all have proposed a tiny gravitational acceleration difference inside a Casimir cavity relative to outside. This normally inconsequential force of 10 E-14 N is enhanced by the geometrical confinement inside the cavity that redirects heat energy into quickly amplifying this acceleration vector to significant values which appear faster and smaller from our inertial frame outside the cavity, I am proposing the appropriate choice of geometry can trump normal catalytic action and produce heat if it impedes diatomic mobility at high velocity. This would shred the bonds apart, restore monatomic values and allow the atoms to resume their acceleration until they once again form a high velocity compound, give off a free photon without combustion and possibly emit the signature black light plasma reported by Mills and other researchers. An obvious example of a catalyst that meets Casimir geometry is the skeletal catalyst Rainey Nickel with voids of 10 nm x 10nm.

[1] H. E. Puthoff, Ground state of hydrogen as a zero-point-fluctuation-determined

state, Phys. Rev. D 35 (10) (15 May 1987) 3266—3269.

[2] Measurability of vacuum fluctuations and dark energy

Physica A Statistical Mechanics and its Applications 379 (1), 101 (2007)

info:doi/10.1016/j.physa.2006.12.019

[3] ELECTROMAGNETIC DARK ENERGY

International Journal of Modern Physics D 17 (1), 71 (2008)

info:doi/10.1142/s0218271808011870

[4] R. C. Bourgoin, Inverse quantum mechanics of the hydrogen atom: A general solution

Adv. Studies Theor. Phys., Vol. 1, 2007, no. 5-8, 381-393

[5] Jan Naudts (August 2005) “ On the hydrino state of relativistic hydrogen atom”

Ground state of hydrogen as a zero-point-fluctuation-determined state