Cold Fusion is an inappropriate term, as accurately described by Steven Krivet in a recent article ” Cold Fusion is Neither” cold or fusion. He provides the background history and ongoing research before throwing his support solely behind the Widom Larsen theory (2006). I also believe the Widom Larsen theory has strong merit but not to the exclusion of other theories or a likely combination of processes based on these other theories. Mills has evidence of excess heat based on chemistry, The Haisch – Moddel patent is based on Casimir effect, Pam Mosier-Boss at SPAWAR provides evidence for Low energy nuclear reactions and Jan Naudt’s proposes a relativistic hydrogen environment for the hydrino. There is no reason to think these related phenomena are all exclusive and the difficulty in matching data to theory up to this point may be due to contributions and interactions between these different processes. The environment is certainly unique but that does not limit the methods to exploit it.
I would like to see someone take the best of these methods and combine them. The catalytic environment is clearly the common denominator and only the method by which energy gets rectified that differentiates these researchers. IMHO these competing methods have a synergetic effect on each other and there appears to be multiple processes occuring during test which combine in different proportions based on the particular method employed by different researchers. Some of these methods are chemical reactions with fractional hydrogen like Mills, Beta decay and ultra low momentum neutrons like Widom – Larsen, LENR like Boss and Arata, or my own take on Naudt’s proposal of the hydrino being relativistic hydrogen- suggesting the collective effect of the atoms in the catalyst bend space time such that the orbits only appear fractional from our perspective. This leads immediately to a relativistic interpretation of Casimir effect and EM supression where longer wavelengths only appear shorter. (see Relativistic interpretation of Casimir effect Expanded). A relativistic interpretation is supported by a 1996 paper, “Cavity QED” by Zofia Bialynicka-Birula which proposes an abrupt break in isotropy between Casimir plates and a 1999 paper “The Light Velocity Casimir Effect” by Tom Ostoma and Mike Trushyk which proposes the Casimir cavity as a relativistic environment where the velocity of light appears to increase relative to outside the cavity. It is also supported by a paper from Dr Carlos Calvet “Evidence for the Existence of 5 Real Spatial Dimensions in Quantum Vacuum”
The conductive open cell Casmir cavities (synthetic catalyst) described in the (Haisch -Moddel patent) are separated by layers of insulating cells which allow the gas atoms to flow smoothly through to the next layer of Casimir calls. This has great advantage over skeletal catalysts and nano powders in that it forces the gas atoms fully into and out of fractional states by circulating through non catalyst layers. Their proposed prototype is limited by manufacturing capabilities to 100nm and they propose to use noble gas with Casimir Lamb pinch instead of chemistry to rectify energy which produces less energy but does not require a chemical reaction so may actually occur much more often. Their prototype remains unfinished and their calculations unverified by experimental results but their patent was granted based on Stochiastic Electro Dynamics (SED) a well accepted cousin of QED.
Using Mill’s chemistry in an H-M like open cell design could allow for better control of the reaction since the gas is constantly circulated into and out of fractional states. This better diffuses the reactions over a greater surface area and discourages thermal runaway. It also allows multiple control parameters such as circulation pressure, mixing with inert gases and backfilling the cells with customized nano powders. If insulating nano powders are used with Arata type nano powders it may be possible to use open cell Nickel foam instead of building the H-M prototype. Rather than neatly organized cell layers the insulating (Zeolites) nano powders and caltalytic (Ni or Pd) nano powders would form open cells randomly based on how the powders mix – both in the surface geometry of the powder itself and the spacing between the powders to form Casimir geometry or insulating dividers between cavities depending on type of powder. This would be less effective than separated layers but no fabrication cost and allow the much smaller cell sizes which may be needed to disassociate atomic bonds. (change in Casimir force is inverse to the cube of the plate spacing)
Animation of proposed relativistic method where the h2 is repelled from entering into the casimir the cavity similar to why h2 can not pass through a PEM filter but h1 translates freely and appears to shrink in size (h/x). When these h/x atoms form h2/x inside the cavity energy is released and further translation to any different fractional value is opposed by the new covalent bond which grips these fractional orbitals together at a constant orientation. In a recent paper by Professor Garret Moddel dated 30 October 2009 “Assessment of proposed electromagnetic quantum vacuum energy extraction methods” the exclusion of vacuum fluctuations and resulting change in energy density inside a Casimir cavity is employed to explain anomalous heat gains of gas atoms being pumped through this environment. The energy used to pump the atoms through the cavity is far less than the energy gained but does not violate conservation of energy. A more recent paper by Professor Moddel “A Demon, a Law, and the Quest for Virtually Free Energy” explains this concept in laymans terms. The fractional atomic hydrogen (h1/x) is restored from fractional molecular hydrogen (h2/x ) at a discount equal to the opposition of motion accumulating between the covalent bond of the h2/x and the “pressure” change in Casimir force is applying on the atomic orbitals to translate to a different fractional value. This means the h2/x can be disassociated for less energy than is released when 2 atoms fall to a molecular state! .This does not violate COE because the covalent bond shifting between different energy densities allows the normally tiny and cancelling zero pint energy to accumulate as opposition to motion and be rectified by a discount at disassociation time. This energy source is normally considered unharnessable but creating this environment where hydrogen is shuttled between areas with different energy densities appears to offer a chemical method to accumulate this energy. This cycle can continue for as long as the gas atoms remain in an environment of changing fractional states. A totally reversible reaction cycle could continue to oscillate between h2 and h1 fueled by an environment of changing Casimir force/geometry. As a process disassociated h1/x penetrates into the catalyst while translating freely between fractional states, fractional h2/x forms and accumulates opposition between further translating and the covalent bond which is holding the orbitals at a fixed dimension such that they can be disassociated at a discount equal to this opposing force. If you prefer a 3 body reaction as posited in some theories you could consider the casimir fields as a large virtual body or adopt the concept of an ultra low momentum neutron suggested in the Widom-Larsen theory both of which are on a scale the size of the entire cavity or metal cluster and as such are in constant contact with all gas atoms in the cell. Fran
4 thoughts on “Combining Mill’s chemistry with Haich-Moddel insulated layers of open catalyst cells”
“Using Mill’s chemistry in this open cell design could allow for better control of the reaction since the gas is constantly circulated into and out of fractional states.”
I thought Mill’s thought that the hydrogen gas was simply shrunk into a hydrino, not circulated into and out of fractional states. Is the reaction producing long-lasting hydrinos or not? I mean, isn’t hydrogen the fuel? It is according to Mills.
Brad, the reaction does not produce long-lasting hydrinos and the hydrino is not combusted when it releases heat inside Rayney Ni which is why only tiny amounts of hydrogen have to be restored. Mill’s process is often refered to as super chemistry because it releases more heat than can be accounted for by combustion wthout ever combusting the hydrogen. It does sometimes produce hydrides which I suspect are actually undesirable reactions with the catalyst that poison the reaction from recycling. I don’t agree that hydrino can exist outside a relativistic environment but I can see where dihydrinos might be able to exist in a fractional state held in a catalytic geometry by their own diatomic bond. So yes it may be possible to make some high octane fractional H2 but it won’t be nearly as energetic as repetative re-cycling of hydrogen between different fractional orbit states and atomic bond states where opposition to H2 translation can discount the energy cost of disassociation below the energy gained when the diatoms formed. The energy is coming from what W-L theory calls the “collective action of atoms in the catalyst”, or what I refer to as changes in Casimir force, interacting in an asymetrical way with atomic vs diatomic gas. This does not break conservation of energy but rather allows the diatoms to “accumulate” the normally chaotic vacuum energy in the form of opposition between the fractional translating force of the environment and the covalent bond of the molecule. This environment is rich with collisions that can triggger numerous chemical and or nuclear reactions at a discount by rectifying this asymetry between atomic and diatomic gas before any opposing forces have a chance to dissapate into redirected motion.
There is no reason Mills’ theory on hydrino (dihydrino) creation ought to crowd out other theories on the same subject. What you theorize is that the hydrogen being used as fuel is producing heat by going in and out of a relativist environment (whereas Mills thinks the hydrogen is just being consumed by lowering the hydrogen atom’s electron path)? Mills’ is working on “restoring” the catalyst, but you are saying (only tiny amounts of) hydrogen [has] to be restored. Do you think a “catalyst” can be found that doesn’t have to be re-cycled, unlike the BlackLight Process?
I think the amount of hydrogen that is “consumed” in the Black Light Process is probably due to poisoning reactions with the catalyst that produce hydrides. I think Mills was trading nonreversible reactions for faster results to demonstrate excess heat in the Rowan confirmations. I think there may be a relationship between change in dispersion forces (Casimir/Van der Walls) and catalytic action as demonstrated by news out of Cornell that catalytic action only ocurs at openings and defects in nanotubes. note Mills did embrace a paper by Jan Naudts that hydrino could be relativistic and often points to hydrino spectrum from hydrogen being ejected by the suns corona (linear acceleration vs equivalent acceleration in a catalyst).
Yes as long as chemistry occurs such that h1/x forms h2/x which then opposes the return out of a relativist environment – basically arranging two natural forces to oppose each other to create heat. natures desire for lowest energy state forms a covalent bond and changes in vacuum energy cause atomic orbitals to translate to different relativistic orbital states in opposition to any covalent bond.
I think the “restoring” that Mills is performing is due to the catalytic geometry reforming during thermal runaway at which time you have hydrides forming according to the rules of stiction to short out the casimir force. Mills needs to somehow blow out these cat whiskers or bridges to restore the Casimir geometry. I do think that a very sudden change in vacum energy / change in Casimir force is needed to elevate normal catalytic action to the point where it can trigger a diatom to disassociate. This “super catalyst” may require physical confinement, a diatomic bond opposing the translatation and possibly collisions to trigger the reaction before the opposing forces have a chance to
dissipate into redirected motion. The need for restoration in Mill’s catalyst is bypassed in the prototype proposed in the Haisch and Moddel patent but their method is untried and based on Casimir Lamb pinch without any chemical reactions required – It is an intriguing theory but as yet unproved. Their concept of placing insulating layers between layers of large (100nm) open cell catalysts could be adapted to a chemistry based process. I suspect the
cave like closed cells (pores) of Rayney Nickel are exciting the gas atoms into thermal runaway (some may escape into the lattice in their translated state making the pores into “pump houses” but that is a topic for another day). the open cell catalytic layers separated by open cell insulating layers in the H-M patent would reduce thermal runaway, allow for control of circulation pressure and mixing with inert gas to control the reaction. The reduced Casimir force in the H-M prototype could be overcome by either backfilling the large pores with nano powders or even eliminated by starting with foamed nickel and backfilling with a mixture of nano powders and insulating zeolites. The foamed metal and powder mixtures would be far more economical to produce.
Edit regarding my “topic for another day” , My relativistic perspective of suppression, Casimir effect and Mill’s claims of self catalyzing action of hydrogen and stable fractional states has me wondering if the true nature of tunneling ,EM suppression and Casimir effect are all subject to a relativistic interpretation. Could fractional molecules once formed migrate inside a metal lattice? Is this also an intuitive explanation for tunneling? Casimir effect is supposed to dissipates as you approach very near the walls of a Casimir cavity (Lifshitz) but my curiosity was stirred by these “stable” self catalyzing dihydrinos claims. If these molecules are actually relativistic h2 as proposed by Naudts then there must be a space time deformity that could allow these diatoms the “room” they need to pass through the lattice AND possibly still maintain a space-time “displacement” suitable for Casimir effect to accumulate and help keep the diatom displaced on the time axis – effectively contained inside the lattice? In a similar manner could tunneling be a deformity allowing matter to detour around a barrier on the time axis?
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