Alternate THEORY for Hydrino based on Casimir cavities

February 2, 2009
Much attention has been drawn by Rowan University’s’ August 12th validation of excess heat generated by off the shelf chemicals in a recipe provided by Black Light Power. Rowan had previously validated even greater energy gains in October 08 using hydrogenated Rayney nickel provided by BlackLight Power but because the material was not prepared at Rowan there was controversey regarding the “preparation” of the powder. In both cases the energy produced exceeded known chemistry and implies a mechanism somewhere between chemical and nuclear. This subject of anomalous heat production has existed for decades most notably interactions between monatomic hydrogen and different catalysts. From Ponds and Fleischman in the 80’s to Irving Langmuir’s circa 1939 Nobel Prize work showing Atomic Hydrogen recombining to form H2 and excess heat. Trying to unravel this mystery has taken many paths, Cold Fusion, bubble fusion, LENR, cavitations and more. Some of the theories behind the most successful methods are even more controversial because they claim a fractional quantum state where the orbital drops below ground state. I am proposing this is a relativistic state and the controversy regarding fractional quantum states of hydrogen is nothing more than semantics. Black Light Power has defined the term “hydrino” for their interpretation of fractional quantum state.
Since Black Light Power has already defined the “hydrino” and because “fractional quantum state hydrogen” is also misleading I prefer to use the term “relativistic hydrogen” as proposed in a 2005 paper by Jan Naudts“ On the hydrino state of relativistic hydrogen atom”. Naudts argues that detractors of fractional state hydrogen overlook relativistic effects inside a Casimir cavity. These relativistic effects were discussed in a 2002 paper by Italian researchers Di Fiore et all “Vacuum fluctuation force on a rigid Casimir cavity in a gravitational field”. They proposed the possibility of verifying the equivalence principle for the zero-point energy of quantum electrodynamics, by evaluating the force, produced by vacuum fluctuations, acting on a rigid Casimir cavity in a weak gravitational field. Their calculations show a resulting force has opposite direction with respect to the gravitational acceleration, Their proposal indicates equivalent acceleration outside the cavity relative to inside the cavity. Their calculated 10 E^-14 N of force is inconsequential but represents the overall difference between concentration areas in the lattice nuclei vs depletion areas in the Casimir cavities sandwhiched between the plates. The Casimir force felt by monatomic gas diffused in these cavities or between the lattice nuclei is magnitudes higher than the DiFiore effect. Casimir force represents a VERY localized gravitational depletion zone as opposed to the isotropic concentration of a gravity well. To exploit this localized depletion zone of longer wavelength vacuum flux that QED refers to as “up conversion” mon atomic gas must be delivered to these cavities in such a way to allow oscillation between monatomic and diatomic states. The up conversion accelerates H1 to “fast H1” while the appropriate rigid catalyst impedes “fast H2” motion and returns the molecule to monatomic energy levels. the photons emitted by “fast H2” formation are very real and would explain the widened Balmer spectrum reported with Black Light Plasma. I believe that Jan Naudts suggestion of a relativistic solution is the key to this long standing mystery of anomalous heat. This suggests that time is occurring at multiple seconds per second for atoms diffused inside the cavity inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between “plates” as indicated by the Casimir formula for non-ideal conductors. I suggest the normal gravitational field for Casimir plates is modified as plates approach each other in Casimir geometry forming a “depletion” zone between them that upsets the normally isotropic field very locally between the plates. The field is concentrated in the metal lattice which draws down the confined reservoir of a Casimir cavity to create the depletion zone.

Locally hydrogen remains just hydrogen and the Bohr radius is never violated. The small acceleration inside the Cavity accumulates into time dilation and Lorentz contraction which would explain catalytic action but with the appropriate rigid Casimir cavity catalytic action can be leverage into producing excess heat. In the case of the skeletal catalyst used by Mills, Rayney nickel, it is evident that H1 is the preferential state for diffusion. H2 is denied mobility compared to H1 which is able to accumulate velocity inside the exclusion field of the cavity. The small difference in gravitational acceleration calculated by Di Fiore et all represents a diverging relativistic frame allowing the Warkowski space time temporal coordinate of H1 to vary inside the cavity vs. outside the cavity. I prefer to call this “relativistic hydrogen” as opposed to Mills and others who refer to it as fractional quantum states, Their empirical data and calculations of 137 such fractional states varying from 1/2 to 1/137 appears correct but I propose they should be considered perspective multipliers which solve for the trig portion of the Bohr radius measured in our reference frame due to Lorentz contraction. This suggest that Hydrogen orbitals inside a depletion zone can twist their orientation on the time axis in quantum number steps. Dr Mills already claims these fractional states to be non radiative which agrees with my theory that the orbital radius is actually unchanged and the 4D orientation is responsible for the fractional states as observed from a reference frame outside the cavity.

N =1 is assumed to be 45 degree for flat space sharing dimensions equally. As Velocity increases toward C on spatial axis XYZ time is suppressed (event horizon), As velocity increases toward C on time axis the spatial axis XYZ are suppressed (Casimir cavity).

If relativistic H1 forms relativistic H2 it is also denied mobility just like hydrogen molecules near the mouth of the cavity that were unable to diffuse into the depletion zone. The relativistic H2 however has accumulated velocity, is still in a frame with a different acceleration rate and is subject to gas law – heat still trying to diffuse the molecule in opposition to this confinement. The vacuum fluctuations of this still diverging relativistic frame build “organized” boundary conditions with the covalent bond of the confined molecule which breaks the bond and restores the atoms to monatomic levels using ZPE. You could also say the energy is provided by gas law for those opposed to ZPE :_)

When relativistic H2 forms inside a cavity it emits a photon then becomes spatially confined in opposition to the moving frame and gas law. When these forces accumulate to break the covalent bond the atoms reorient to the appropriate “fractional quantum” angle for the local Casimir geometry and the cycle starts over in a photon emitting cascade between H1 and H2 that does not consume the hydrogen. This continues until the atoms escape the cavity or the geometry overheats and grows shorts that relieve the depletion zone.

A patent US 7,379,286 B2 awarded May 27, 2008 to Bernard Haisch and Garret Moddel leverages Casimir force which they refer to as Casimir -Lamb shift. Their planned prototype of Casimir columns formed by milled colums through mettalic plates seperated by insulation layers are arranged in a stack. they drill an array of .1 micron columns through the stack which unlike Rayney nickel has a feed through path seperated by insulators that force the depletion zones in each plate of each column to translate through its full range of values which is a vast improvement over the skeletal catalyst used by Mills. A recent discovery by Peng Chen at Cornell University Finds nanotubes only have catalytic action at ends and at defects where plate spacing changes. This indicates The Haisch – Moddel cavity columns with insulation breaks is superior to skeletal catalysts used by Mills. Although the skeletal catalyst has stronger depletion fields due to much smaller geometry the Rowan validations appear to release a burst of energy and then the Mills reactors are finished while the Haisch – Moddel model is designed to run continuously. Their .1u diameter cavities are much weaker, form columns that allow circulation control and mixing ratios of diatomic to monatomic gases and simpler heat exchange. Although the methods of confinement and the physics being exploited differ they both require the Casimir cavity to establish a differential zone where normal reactionary forces are partially suspended allowing what appears to be overunity but is actually rectifying energy from the ZPF.

Relativistic Hydrogen extracts ZPE (pre-paper)
March 12th, 2009
Relativistic Hydrogen molecules extract energy
from Vacuum Fluctuations
Francis X Roarty
Electronics Technician
E-mail [email protected]
Abstract
The claims of sub zero states of hydrogen have been controversial for years and caused the study of this field to languish for what may prove to be nothing more than semantics. A 2005 paper by Jan Naudts paper (5 August 2005). “On the hydrino state of the relativistic hydrogen atom” [5] contends that the sub zero state argument overlooks relativistic effect inside Casimir cavities. Relativistic hydrogen implies a temporal axis solution where the hydrino orbital remains stationary relative to a moving boundary as the atom rotates away from our plane reshaping the 4D boundary. The Casimir cavity enlarges the temporal axis so the nucleus and its boundaries twist wide on the temporal axis while contracting the orbital diameter in our plane. Note in my animation of a hydrogen atom VS Hydrino atom from a 4D perspective – the orbital trails the nucleus like a halo and does not surround the nucleus. In hydrogen the temporal displacement between the nucleus and orbital is negligible compared to zero state restrictions but in the hydrino the temporal displacement dominates the zero state displacement. the quadric volume of boundary conditions is unchanged but reshaped “skinny” in our plane while growing “fat” on the temporal axis. The minimal approach to the nucleus is still observed but now depicted in the animation by a smaller more distant nucleus displaced outward on the time axis courtesy of the Casimir exclusion field. Longer Vacuum fluctuations making up this boundary have been twisted into the temporal plane to fit between the plates – they appear faster from our perspective and twist the boundary conditions of any matter that translates through them.

1 Introduction
Black Light Power [1] , founded by Dr Randell Mills, was confirmed in an October 2008 video by Rowan University [2] to produce far more calories than possible for the given hydrogen impregnation in a 50KW reactor. The hydrogen and catalyst are brought up to 200C at which point the reaction produces far more heat than Rowan chemists can account for with standard chemistry. Dr Mills controversial Grand Unified Theory [3] is based on a sub zero state hydrogen atom. This theory was challenged by Andre Rathke (May 2005) paper “A critical analysis of the hydrino model”. [4] however Rathke’s paper was itself soon challenged by Jan Naudts paper (5 August 2005). “On the hydrino state of the relativistic hydrogen atom” [5] which demonstrated that Rathke had not allowed for relativistic effects (temporal axis displacement). on May 27th 2008 Bernard Haisch and Garret Moddel were awarded a patent [6] for a device based on stochastic electrodynamics which also describes an orbital “spinning down” but leveraging the restricted vacuum fluctuations of a Casimir exclusion field their theory lends itself well to Naudts “relativistic” solution in place of the controversial sub zero state.
I am in agreement that a sub zero state of the hydrogen atom can not exist however the hydrino is very real and needs to be redefined as a positive temporal axis excursion. I am proposing that Jan Naudts mathematical evidence [5] of a “relativistic” solution side steps the sub zero state argument and fits well with Dr Mills assertions of a non radiative transition “away” from zero state. if we assume a positive excursion on the temporal axis, the orbital simply remains stationary relative to vector changes of the nucleus and its’ boundary volume that is being squeezed into redistributing itself fat on the temporal axis while correspondingly reducing its’ profile in our plane. The energy level, -13.6 eV remains unchanged when translating in and out of these exclusion fields unless these “fat” atoms form a covalent bond that locks their orbital configurations one against the other preventing the new molecule’s orbitals from translating back into our plane. It is these dihydrinos that provide an alternate explanation for Mills energy level data without violating the zero state or the spectral evidence of Kunze, H-J (2008). “On the spectroscopic measurements used to support the postulate of states with fractional principal quantum numbers in hydrogen” [7].

I am proposing a composite of Naudts-Moddel- Haisch theory be adopted for investigating hydrino like constructs without the burden of sub zero state arguments or spectral line conflicts.

My suggestion that these “temporally Fat” atoms must form a covalent bond is not necessary to adopting Naudts much more important idea that the hydrino is due to relativistic effect not sub zero state. The continuing arguments and papers since then still focus on the sub zero state argument apparently unaware of Naudts relativistic solution or simply missing its significance when applied to the 4D geometry of the orbital boundary. Naudts paper was a mathematical analysis which I believe has lead to the physical interpretation being overlooked.
My theory regarding covalent bonding to follow is totally independent of the hopefully adopted relativistic theory above. I propose that the orbital boundaries of the newly formed “fat” molecule formed inside an exclusion field are no longer free to redistribute volume between their 4D parameters while exiting the cavity. The new molecule’s orbitals are not free to transition back to our plane which causes normally chaotic virtual particles to accumulate organized boundary conditions trying to push the offending orbitals back into their normal “skinny” orientations in our plane. These boundary conditions quickly accumulate as the temporal dimension narrows inversely to plate spacing and break the covalent bond. This momentarily restores the atoms to monatomic levels which instantly re-bond releasing energy and more importantly again locking the orbital orientation to specific gradient on the time axis. This rearms and accelerates the process cascading down the time axis until the molecule is ejected from the cavity. This method turns a covalent bond into a bucket which extracts heat energy from “organized” virtual particles.
I predict that the covalent “temporally fat” molecule formed inside an exclusion field is capable of reacting with space-time. Vacuum fluctuations accumulate boundary conditions with orbitals as the molecule exits the exclusion field but their reactionary forces are translated 90 degrees to the time axis avoiding back pressure with hydrogen supply. These boundary potentials can be harvested as heat energy when the bond is broken such as the Black Light Power reactors tested by Rowan University however there is another as yet untested potential. The accumulated boundary conditions with vacuum fluctuations just prior to the breaking of the covalent bond while the molecule is exiting the exclusion field can be adapted for propellantless thrust. It is not yet established if the plasma producing molecule can be extracted without collapsing the boundary conditions so it may be necessary to move the entire medium containing the cavity to develop relative motion between Space-Time and the plasma. In the meantime however I predict that plasma reactors such as those employed by BLP are already producing exotic inertia properties unmeasured to date. I predict that a reactor approaching threshold of plasma production will exhibit resistance to motion in the gravitational axis due to boundary interleaving. This property is easily overlooked because motionless “interleaving” will only reveal a frictional contact in one axis. If I am correct then adding or subtracting calibrated weights will reveal the effect relative to a baseline measurement. The weights will eventually balance but much slower than baseline measurement due to dragging boundary conditions.
Although this paper only speaks to the specific case of one catalyst forming Casimir cavities it implies heavily that all catalytic action is powered by Casimir geometry be it cavities or surface outcroppings. I am proposing that mechanistic origin of catalysis is not as complex as present theory implies, reactants simply take “temporal” detours through this geometry to perform chemistry at normal speed from their perspective but greatly accelerated from our perspective. This fits well with the ageing effect associated with catalysts. This effectively accelerates time through a very narrow opening just like the opposite case of slowing time in the very wide opening of an event horizon – both effects only relative from our perspective.
see updates and animation

References
1. Black Light Power Inc. www.blacklightpower.com
2. Rowan University Confirmation Video http://www.blacklightpower.com/Documentary%20Video/blacklight_experiment_video_v2.wmv
3. Randell Mills “The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics” http://www.blacklightpower.com/theory/theory.shtml
4. Andre Rathke (May 2005). “ A critical analysis of the hydrino model” New Journal of Physics 2005 http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1367-2630/7/1/127/
5. Jan Naudts (August 2005) “ On the hydrino state of relativistic hydrogen atom” http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0507193v2
6. Bernard Haisch and Garret Moddel patent US 7,379,286 B2 awarded May 27, 2008
http://www.calphysics.org/Patent7379286.pdf
7. Kunze, H-J (2008). “On the spectroscopic measurements used to support the postulate of states with fractional principal quantum numbers in hydrogen”. J Phys D: Appl Phys 41: 108001. doi:10.1088/0022-3727/41/10/108001 http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/0022-3727/41/10/108001/

1 thought on “Alternate THEORY for Hydrino based on Casimir cavities

  1. Sounds like a nexus of thought is developing, which will hasten the exploitation of this energy source. Well done.

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