For decades researchers have often reported anomalous excess heat when atomic hydrogen and catalysts are involved. The mechanisms and therefore the ability to scale this effect have so far eluded scientists. Some research points to chemical byproducts and other research points to nuclear byproducts but both are insufficient to explain the amount of heat detected. This article proposes a plausible solution without byproducts pitting natures desire for the diatomic state against a “focused” catalytic/Casimir force that breaks this covalent bond by reshaping the atoms in opposition to it.( see this animation ). These forces are normally on different scales and require monatomic gas and a relativistic cavity where energy is suppressed to bring these scales into balance where they can oscillate. The difficulty is in keeping the balance to prevent runaway or starvation. Runaway will destroy the geometry producing Casimir effect while starvation doesn’t have enough heat to keep the gas monatomic.
In May 2008 Arata-Yang demonstrated the effect repeatedly using Pd and deuterium. Their experiment was recently replicated by Kitamura et all Phys. Lett. A, 2009. 273(35): p. 3109-3112. In the United States we have a patent granted in May 2008 to Haisch and Moddel for a system based on Casimir cavities and 2 Rowan university validations of the Black Light Process developed by Randell Mills, one in 2008 using reactors and materials supplied by Mills and more the second in August of 2009 a validation using only recipes from Mills while materials were procured commercially. All of these researchers appear to have different theories some of which are in direct conflict with established physics, hence Mills inability to patent a process that is clearly demonstrating excess heat while Haisch and Moddel were able to patent an as yet un-prototyped device using virtually the same physical concept but based on different physics. While the skeletal catalyst Rayney Nickel forms activated pores with geometry making them Casimir cavities the math and chemistry Mills submits to define the reaction is based on catalytic action and requires hydrogen to take on orbital states 2 to 137 times smaller than ground state. Haisch and Moddel rephrase the “hydrino” which violates the laws of physics to what they term a system for converting energy from electromagnetic quantum vacuum by suppressing appropriate frequencies by virtue of the Casimir effect which suppresses longer wavelength vacuum energy as the plates get closer. Mills definition could have been salvaged in 2005 when Jan Naudts proposed the 137 fractional states could be relativistic or even later when in 2007 Ron Bourgoin published a paper that actually proved the 137 fractional states using equations dictating a relativistic environment for electrons(occupying the same spatial position). Mills embraced the support but never redefined his theory or patent application allowing Haisch and Moddel to patent their similar theory unopposed.
I include LENR and the Casimir cavity based patent of Haisch and Moddel with the Black Light process claimed by Randell Mills because the catalyst pore sizes used by Mill’s and the surface geometry of SPAWAR electrodes are also of Casimir geometry. The Pd and Pd nanopowders used by Arata in Japan also form cavities between particles on their surface geometry and even inside the lattice defects where hydrogen is both absorbed and disassociated via the membrane properties of Pd. It is unlikely these different reports all involving monatomic gas and catalysts are unrelated. even sonoluminescence may be the result of conductive liquid meniscus rapidly compressing hydrogen gas pockets into Casimir geometry.
No theory yet explains how the conservation of energy is broken to produce excess heat, even if the hydrogen or deuterium translates to relativistic hydrogen inside a Casimir cavity the transition as noted by Mills is nonradiative, according to Mills a reaction is necessary inside the cavity but according to the H-M theory the hydrogen loses energy to the cavity walls even without a reaction but is then restored via the global vacuum energy as it exits the cavity. My point is that any energy differential should cause a back pressure to the hydrogen supply restricting the flow into the cavity equal to any potential energy gains. Here the Naudts proposal escapes conservation of energy because mechanical forces/t do not have to sum to zero between inertial frames if you break the symmetry by forming a covalent bond while the atoms are in a relativistic fractional state. e in * t/1 = e out * t /(2-137). Even with the Naudts theory this is not “free” energy, you exchange spatial units for temporal units when the covalent bond opposes changes in Casimir force (changes in catalytic action) meaning you exchange time for heat energy. A recent discovery by Peng Chen at Cornell University Finds nanotubes concentrate catalytic action at ends and at defects in the walls of nanotubes, This suggests changes in Casimir geometry would also concentrate catalytic action. Much of what we know about catalytic action is based on simple metrics, surface areas, oxidation and figures of merit. The relativistic interpretation of Casimir effect strongly suggests the engine behind catalytic action is based on changes in Casimir geometry.
Motion of dihydrinos between changing Casimir geometry breaks their covalent bonds as the atoms reshape to match the changing inertial frames. The claim that hydrogen translates to hydrino without photon emission tells us the atom is reshaped from our perspective by the lower vacuum energy inside the cavity. This reshaping can have 137 different values according to Bourgoins paper forming a gradient based on very local plate geometry and spacing. These “relativistic” atoms still must reshape even after forming a molecule but are opposed by the new covalent bond, the covalent bond eventually gets broken by this reshaping force when the molecule moves to a Casimir geometry/force sufficient to exceed the bonding force. This force restores the atoms to monatomic energy levels (qualifying the atoms to repeat the procedure). This reshaping force is proportional to the suppressed value of vacuum energy, inversely proportional to the cube of distance between the plates per Casimir force F(z) / S = -(pi^2 * reduced h * c) / (240* z^3) where reduced h is the reduced Planck constant, c is the velocity of light, and S is the area of the plates. It creates multiple inertial frames allowing molecular bonds to organize and exploit time dilation between frames. The balancing point however is difficult to maintain because nature immediately forces the atoms back to diatomic states which emits a photon and starts the cycle over again in what can become a destructive thermal runaway quickly melting the cavity to relieve the Casimir force and producing the hydride byproducts claimed by Black Light Power or going the other way, starving the process into the slow “life after death” scenario described by Arata and others where a slow excess heat is recorded after the experiment is de-energized and lasting days to weeks depending on the size and geometry of nano powders and loading methods. In the animation note hydrogen on top with normal (red) emission on bonding while moving plates show relativistic atoms translated and spectrum shifted (blue). At bottom an exaggerated multiple vacuum fluctuation is shown twisting with time dilation to appear faster from our perspective vs being displaced by shorter fluctuations per current theory.
Another reason I am tolerant of the hydride byproducts and lack of dihydrinos available for analysis is the very short duration of the BLP reaction. It screams thermal runaway and the byproducts would only account for the destructive reactions necessary to relieve the Casimir force by melting closed or shorting the parallel plates. In my theory there is no byproduct -nature oscillates between the desired diatomic state and molecular disassociation when the new high mobility molecule finds its covalent bond opposed by the individual atoms still trying to transition to different fractional states(relativistic). What is needed is a control loop to keep the frequency slow enough to extract the heat before damage can occur. The fact that other reports of excess heat like Arata in Japan evolve over days or weeks suggests the opposite condition of starvation where oscillation is delayed over time as the atomic gas slowly accumulates the velocities needed to exchange time dilation for energy. Kitamura’s replication of Arata experiment indicates the effect becomes more pronounced with fineness of the nanopowders.
The application of Naudts relativistic proposal to the Casimir effect is often met with skepticism, At the macro scale time dilation requires velocities at high fractions of C or crushing gravitational wells that provide equivalent acceleration of similar effect. These effects are concentrating our interaction with virtual particles. We also know linear luminal velocity would be impossible to attain in a Casimir cavity so I have assumed equivalent deceleration vs equivalent acceleration. It is the differences in vacuum energy suppression inside the cavity vs outside that we are trying to use atomic hydrogen to exploit. The energy is considered negative but we are only concerned with the absolute differential value.
From the Puthoff atomic model I conjecture an energy “pressure” that keeps an orbital in a balanced ground state –hence “my river of time”/virtual particles pressing past our nuclei and growing larger as they flash past our electrons in the final scene of my animation. I want to springboard from this concept to an XY axis of velocity vs. time where as v approaches C an animated spacecraft slows it’s progress along the x axis and starts to rise and contract on the y axis – all with the virtual particle background from above animation playing at 20% alpha illumination to make the point the ships velocity relative to the moving field has a Pythagorean component that becomes more pronounced as matter starts to reach velocities of similar magnitude to the virtual particles. I hesitate to say these virtual particles have a luminal velocity since their “rate” may well establish the relativistic values upon which we measure “time”. that said these virtual particles still must obey certain rules and not occupy already existing space causing a “pressure” differential that agrees with Puthoff’s atomic model, I believe this “pressure” causes a vortex around and behind the nucleus (from a 4D perspective) that restores the orbital energy after spontaneous emission and keeps a balanced ground state. This “standard” pressure of time passing from future to past through matter is what I believe Casimir cavities are able to “segregate”. It is not just like a tiny cavity of dead air like you imagine with insulation materials. I believe the plate geometry of conductors concentrate a resistance to this flow like the canvas sails of a sailing ship where a small hole (cavity) creates a relief where the concentrated wind pressure forms a venturi where the speed and pressure is far removed from the nominal wind speed. It is this difference between the nominal value of time and the venturi induced values inside the cavity that we can exploit with atomic hydrogen.
In the same paradox manner that accelerating matter in 3D space slows time from our perspective, accelerating the flow of virtual particles through a cavity accelerates time from our perspective and lowers the energy “pressure” inside the cavity. The difference between our inertial frame energy and these decelerated frames inside the cavity is often referred to as negative energy, It suggests a gravity hill as opposed to the deep gravity well in the twin paradox where the space faring twin can park on a high G object to accumulate time dilation, instead the shielded (decelerated) cavity equates to the earthbound twin and hydrogen outside the cavity equates to the “high G” twin. One should not focus on the difference between planetary gravity vs free space which would NOT account for the effect, rather we consider the “nominal rate” at which virtual particles pass through 3D space which is amplified by this “venturi like” property of a Casimir cavity. The force is described by the Casimir formula and is proportional to the fractional relativistic states Bourgoin calculated for the hydrino multiplied by some scaling constant for atomic hydrogen and another constant for molecular hydrogen. This sets up the asymmetry for energy gain when the translation is atomic in one direction but molecular in the other.
Recalll the 2 conditions from animation…
H+H>> H2 + photon and remains H2 end of story
while in the Casimir cavity
H/x+H/x >> (H2)/x + photon but then changes in Casimir force
break the covalent bond restoring atoms at new levels H/(x+dx)
therefore the relationship between Casimir force and orbitals is different for atoms and molecules.
Casimir force F(z) / S = -(pi^2 * reduced h * c) / (240* z^3)
multiplied by the appropriate scaling factor should be equal to the fractional state depicted in Bourgoins equation below
In the normal scenario this relationship simply prevents H2 from
diffusing into the smaller geometry of a Casimir cavity but when energy is invested to keep hydrogen atoms disassociated and Casimir cavities are present the criteria for producing fractional states are met, any atoms diffusing into the suppression zones become fractional and have the potential for rectifying the difference in energy between the normal and suppression zones but only if they
form a covalent bond to oppose the reverse translation and force the change in suppression to break the covalent bond thereby restoring atomic energy levels.