I recently updated Relativistic interpretation of Casimir Effect which establishes the foudation I expand upon here. My premise is that a relativistic interpretation leads to the common underlying environment which is exploited in claims of excess heat by Rossi, Mills, Arata, Haisch, Moddel,
Moller and others going all the way back to Langmuir and his discovery of anomalous heat when welding with hydrogen gas and tungsten electrodes in the 1920′s. These researchers may employ different methods of extracting energy which could even lead to otherwise unfavorable nuclear reactions but it is my position that the initial energy extraction depends upon naturally occurring Heisenberg traps where the constant motion of confined gases with respect to changing Casimir geometry causes changes in energy density. There is one method proposed by Haisch and Moddel that circulates noble gases relative to intentional changes in Casimir geometry that exploits a tiny energy gain based on mechanism they refer to as “Lamb Pinch”. The Haisch and Moddel prototype builds Casimir tunnels segregated by insulation layers to create a synthetic skeletal catalyst. Other claims of anomalous heat are typically based on hydrogen or deuterium and run the gambit from chemical to nuclear either alone or in combination with other mechanisms. My premise for initial energy gain with heated hydrogen gas is that the phenomena we refer to as catalytic disassociation is powered by the constant motion of gas which is in itself a macro example of ZPE based on HUP. The chaotic and random nature of this motion is normally considered un-exploitable however, IMHO, conditions where energy density is caused to vary are not normal and do provide an opportunity to exploit this motion! Normally we know energy density only changes as you ascend or descend by slow gradients through a gravitational well. At the nano scale however we know through Cavity QED that the isotropy of gravity can be suddenly broken by Casimir boundaries. It is easy to see at the macro scale how one could easily gain energy if we had free transportation like gas atoms that transported us between regions with different gravitational levels. We could simply lift items in low gravity and drop them in high gravity, but of course we don’t have free transportation at the macro scale. At the nano scale we know gas atoms can be disassociated at much lower than normal temperatures due to catalysts of Casimir geometry like the skeletal catalyst Rayney nickel used in the Black Light process. It is my premise that molecular gases such as hydrogen oppose these sudden changes in energy density caused by changes in Casimir geometry (referred to as catalytic disassociation) while atomic gases such as h1 are unaffected, explaining molecular disassociation at lower temperatures. This asymmetry between atomic/h1 and molecular/h2 bond states is the basis for a Heisenberg trap – the chemical equivalent of lifting and dropping weights in different gravitational zones, only here, the transportation between zones really is free due to the gas property of constant motion. You still need to initially invest enough heat energy such that the disassociation threshold is within range to be triggered by opposition to change in vacuum energy density. This effectively discounts the heat energy needed to disassociate the molecule but when these atoms reform a molecule the help provided by the constant motion of gas to disassociate molecules does not have a mirror property opposing molecular formation ! The process is not conservative – the opposition to molecular motion discounts the energy associated with molecular disassociation but the energy associated with molecular formation is not affected. The energy released by molecular formation also warms the cavity, thus further reducing our need to add heat on each subsequent cycle. The problem is that as heat builds more and more of the gas population remains disassociated only falling very slowly below the heat threshold to reform molecules ( a kind of self limiting slow over unity). Since we are essentially returning merchandise that we bought at discount for full price we need to accelerate this endless cycle between h1 and h2 WRT the threshold in order to extract any meaningful energy. The Ross E-Catalyzer is thought to accomplish this by extracting the heat with a massive cooling loop to pull the gas population temperature just under the disassociation threshold while using a PWM current pulse delivered into the nickel powder to then drive as much gas as possible back over the disassociation threshold. It remains controversial whether the resistive heating of the E-cat is fast enough to contribute at this speed or if the field generated by the current directly effects the Casimir geometry of the nano powders through magnetostriction to disassociate molecules during the pulsed on time that will cool and reform molecules during the off time. A kind of sweet spot must be balanced between heat extraction that maximizes the number of ”still warm” molecules available for disassociation and the number of these molecules that can be disassociated by PWM current to the resistive heaters during the ”on” portion of the heater waveform.
It seems counter-intuitive but instead of just throttling back this type of reaction we MUST remove heat, not only to store the energy gain but we have to cool the disassociated atoms enough that nature takes over and they reform molecules allowing us to repeat the cycle over and over again. The random motion of gas relative to Casimir geometry changes the energy density being experienced by the gas molecules. Atoms are simply reoriented by this change in energy density but those atoms sharing covalent bonds (molecules) are held in the same orientation they posessed when the molecule formed by the covalent bond. This ”pressure” the covalent bond feels when energy density changes discounts the energy needed to disassoiate the molecule such that it can occur at a much lower temperature - when these atoms later re-form a new molecule they release the full energy associated with hydrogen atoms dropping to the lower molecular energy state including even the energy contributed in the previous cycle from the combination of gas motion and change in energy density. We are getting a full refund for a discounted purchase.
The Relativistic interpretation of Casimir effect proposes that the reduction in vacuum energy density between Casimir plates exactly mirrors the relativistic effects we observe when energy density increases due to acceleration or gravity. We see the effect of increased energy density as slowing time in the Twins Paradox where the dilation and contraction can only be determined by relative measure. I am proposing these properties are reflected when vacuum energy density is lowered such that time is accelerated – contraction remains absolute in either type of dilation but with spatial velocity
you have a vector between space and time where velocity slowly reduces past .7C and the contraction appears along the dimension of travel. When energy density is instead reduced by the supression mechanism of Casimir geometry the rate of C is directly manipulated! you have no need for spatial displacement and the contraction is symetrical along the time axis, seeming to contract equally from any spatial axis. I think this accounts for many of the claimed forms of condensed gas such as hydrino , fractional hydrogen, deuterium ice and the like. A mathematical relationship between the formula for Casimir force and time dilation due to velocity should allow us to solve for time dilation as a function of the plate Area “A” over plate seperation “a”^4 . I think Casimir geometry can be broken down into an array of equivalent accelerations and t’ based on the mass of h1 or h2 . Like Peng Chen at Cornell discovered with respect to nano tubes you need “changes” in geometry to create catalytic action – therefore the most irregularities at the smallest Casimir geometry makes the best catalyst by presenting the most dynamic array of force levels. These rapid changes in equivalent acceleration are hard to notice from our perspective outside the cavity where the atoms appear to become slower, smaller, condensed or “fractional” to us using a microscope from our inertial frame.
I am only just starting the math – the equations below are notyet in the best forms for use - I am still seeking better forms but my premise is that there is a relationship between the Gamma and Casimir formula [ t' and A/a^4 ] and that gas reactants circulating between Casimir boundaries experience an array of t’ values – Always accelerated from our perspective but more so and less so relative to changes in geometry. What we perceive as catalytic action from our perspective outside the Casimir boundaries are very real changes in acceleration vectors for gas inside the boundaries.
The Casimir force per unit area Fc / A for idealized, perfectly conducting plates with vacuum between them is
- (hbar, ħ) is the reduced Planck constant,
- c is the speed of light,
- a is the distance between the two plates.
- Time dilation due to spatial velocity