Cold Fusion is an inappropriate term, as accurately described by Steven Krivet in a recent article “ Cold Fusion is Neither” cold or fusion. He provides the background history and ongoing research before throwing his support solely behind the Widom Larsen theory (2006). I also believe the Widom Larsen theory has strong merit but not to the exclusion of other theories or a likely combination of processes based on these other theories. Mills has evidence of excess heat based on chemistry, The Haisch - Moddel patent is based on Casimir effect, Pam Mosier-Boss at SPAWAR provides evidence for Low energy nuclear reactions and Jan Naudt’s proposes a relativistic hydrogen environment for the hydrino. There is no reason to think these related phenomena are all exclusive and the difficulty in matching data to theory up to this point may be due to contributions and interactions between these different processes. The environment is certainly unique but that does not limit the methods to exploit it.
I would like to see someone take the best of these methods and combine them. The catalytic environment is clearly the common denominator and only the method by which energy gets rectified that differentiates these researchers. IMHO these competing methods have a synergetic effect on each other and there appears to be multiple processes occuring during test which combine in different proportions based on the particular method employed by different researchers. Some of these methods are chemical reactions with fractional hydrogen like Mills, Beta decay and ultra low momentum neutrons like Widom – Larsen, LENR like Boss and Arata, or my own take on Naudt’s proposal of the hydrino being relativistic hydrogen- suggesting the collective effect of the atoms in the catalyst bend space time such that the orbits only appear fractional from our perspective. This leads immediately to a relativistic interpretation of Casimir effect and EM supression where longer wavelengths only appear shorter. (see Relativistic interpretation of Casimir effect Expanded). A relativistic interpretation is supported by a 1996 paper, “Cavity QED” by Zofia Bialynicka-Birula which proposes an abrupt break in isotropy between Casimir plates and a 1999 paper “The Light Velocity Casimir Effect” by Tom Ostoma and Mike Trushyk which proposes the Casimir cavity as a relativistic environment where the velocity of light appears to increase relative to outside the cavity. It is also supported by a paper from Dr Carlos Calvet “Evidence for the Existence of 5 Real Spatial Dimensions in Quantum Vacuum”
The conductive open cell Casmir cavities (synthetic catalyst) described in the (Haisch -Moddel patent) are separated by layers of insulating cells which allow the gas atoms to flow smoothly through to the next layer of Casimir calls. This has great advantage over skeletal catalysts and nano powders in that it forces the gas atoms fully into and out of fractional states by circulating through non catalyst layers. Their proposed prototype is limited by manufacturing capabilities to 100nm and they propose to use noble gas with Casimir Lamb pinch instead of chemistry to rectify energy which produces less energy but does not require a chemical reaction so may actually occur much more often. Their prototype remains unfinished and their calculations unverified by experimental results but their patent was granted based on Stochiastic Electro Dynamics (SED) a well accepted cousin of QED.
Using Mill’s chemistry in an H-M like open cell design could allow for better control of the reaction since the gas is constantly circulated into and out of fractional states. This better diffuses the reactions over a greater surface area and discourages thermal runaway. It also allows multiple control parameters such as circulation pressure, mixing with inert gases and backfilling the cells with customized nano powders. If insulating nano powders are used with Arata type nano powders it may be possible to use open cell Nickel foam instead of building the H-M prototype. Rather than neatly organized cell layers the insulating (Zeolites) nano powders and caltalytic (Ni or Pd) nano powders would form open cells randomly based on how the powders mix – both in the surface geometry of the powder itself and the spacing between the powders to form Casimir geometry or insulating dividers between cavities depending on type of powder. This would be less effective than separated layers but no fabrication cost and allow the much smaller cell sizes which may be needed to disassociate atomic bonds. (change in Casimir force is inverse to the cube of the plate spacing)
Animation of proposed relativistic method where the h2 is repelled from entering into the casimir the cavity similar to why h2 can not pass through a PEM filter but h1 translates freely and appears to shrink in size (h/x). When these h/x atoms form h2/x inside the cavity energy is released and further translation to any different fractional value is opposed by the new covalent bond which grips these fractional orbitals together at a constant orientation. In a recent paper by Professor Garret Moddel dated 30 October 2009 “Assessment of proposed electromagnetic quantum vacuum energy extraction methods” the exclusion of vacuum fluctuations and resulting change in energy density inside a Casimir cavity is employed to explain anomalous heat gains of gas atoms being pumped through this environment. The energy used to pump the atoms through the cavity is far less than the energy gained but does not violate conservation of energy. A more recent paper by Professor Moddel “A Demon, a Law, and the Quest for Virtually Free Energy” explains this concept in laymans terms. The fractional atomic hydrogen (h1/x) is restored from fractional molecular hydrogen (h2/x ) at a discount equal to the opposition of motion accumulating between the covalent bond of the h2/x and the ”pressure” change in Casimir force is applying on the atomic orbitals to translate to a different fractional value. This means the h2/x can be disassociated for less energy than is released when 2 atoms fall to a molecular state! .This does not violate COE because the covalent bond shifting between different energy densities allows the normally tiny and cancelling zero pint energy to accumulate as opposition to motion and be rectified by a discount at disassociation time. This energy source is normally considered unharnessable but creating this environment where hydrogen is shuttled between areas with different energy densities appears to offer a chemical method to accumulate this energy. This cycle can continue for as long as the gas atoms remain in an environment of changing fractional states. A totally reversible reaction cycle could continue to oscillate between h2 and h1 fueled by an environment of changing Casimir force/geometry. As a process disassociated h1/x penetrates into the catalyst while translating freely between fractional states, fractional h2/x forms and accumulates opposition between further translating and the covalent bond which is holding the orbitals at a fixed dimension such that they can be disassociated at a discount equal to this opposing force. If you prefer a 3 body reaction as posited in some theories you could consider the casimir fields as a large virtual body or adopt the concept of an ultra low momentum neutron suggested in the Widom-Larsen theory both of which are on a scale the size of the entire cavity or metal cluster and as such are in constant contact with all gas atoms in the cell. Fran